Syllabus [EuroHist-HHS123-F09]

For 9/28-30

Assignment 4

Remember to "REFRESH."

Hellas Pt. 2.5 and Rome I.


:::World Civ: Spring 2007 :WorldCiv Sp07:12,13-3/12;Plato-Romulus:Wed:She-wolf_suckles_Romulus_and_Remus.jpg

The Capitoline Wolf

Romulus and Remus and their Foster Mother, the She-Wolf

The wolf is 5th century BC – Etruscan.

(some challenge this and think it is 13th c.)

Romulus and Remus were added in the 15th century.

The kids are very Renaissancy, alla Michelangelo or Bernini.  [Kids attributed to Pollaiolo]



For Monday:

- Read this interesting ancient court case: EratosthenesMurder400BC.pdf [582MB]

-Read from Davies: pp. 133-147.

-Be prepared for a quiz on the above readings and the readings from last week.  This one will be worth more than the usual quiz, so really master the material.  You may bring one page (standard 8.5" x 11") to this quiz with anything on it.



For Wednesday:

-Read from Davies: pp. 148-153(mid-page).  On earliest Rome.

-Read Livy's account of the founding of Rome. Livy-Aeneas-to-Romulus-to-SabineWomen.htm It is sort of a three-part story.  First Aeneas, a Trojan hero and refugee, sets up in Italy. Then his descendents, Romulus and Remus, found the city of Rome.  Then the newly founded Rome realizes that it has a gender problem similar to Stevens Institute. 

-Look over the family tree for the founding of Rome:  AeneasToRomulus.jpg  There is a link to this in the Livy reading too.


"Essay": Due Wednesday. Remember, I want you to have done 3 assignments by Week 7 (10/21/2009).  All of you should have done one, the comic, and a couple of you have done 2, so start doing these things.  This a good week to do one since I've limited the volume of reading.  Write a 1-page (or more), single-spaced essay (or the equivalent in another medium) that engages the assigned readings for this week.  You could focus on a particular issue from one of the readings that interests you or you could take a broader approach and synthesize all the readings into one essay. I'm impressed when you can refer to readings from previous weeks and I am impressed when you can incorporate the optional readings that I post.  Remember to cite sources including a reference to the reading itself. 

            Ideas: Compare and contrast the founding of Rome to the founding of the United States stories.  I'm guessing you'll find more contrast, but similarities are also easily found.  Pick one of those special interest boxes from the Davies text and learn more about it.  Find examples of paintings and sculptures that show some of the scenes from the Livy reading and look at them closely and try to figure out what everything is.  Iconography is tricky, but fun. 


Citations to the assigned readings other materials from this week.  Feel free to draw upon any optional readings having to do with any Greek speakers from previous assigment pages.



Davies, Norman. Europe : A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.


Hornblower, Simon, and Antony Spawforth eds. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 3rd ed. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.


Livy. Roman History. Translated by John Henry Freese, Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb. Edited by Duffield Osborne. New York: D. Appleton and Company[?], 1904.





:::World Civ: Spring 2007 :WorldCiv Sp07:12,13-3/12;Plato-Romulus:RomulusRemusTiber.jpg


The name given to the cave at the base of the Palatine Hill, where Romulus and Remus were nursed by the she-wolf. 

Notice Romulus and Remus in the lower left.  The Tiber River is probably personified by that man to the right of the she-wolf.  

The Palatine is the hill upon which the upper men are walking and where Romulus and Remus were found in a cave with their foster mother, the wolf.

The two men appear to carry shepherd staves and probably depict Faustulus [and associate] happening upon the she-wolf nursing the twins.

Their head gear may refer to the military school (dedicated to Mars, god of war) which was located on the Palatine.[???]

A favorite symbol of Republican Rome was the fasces, a bundle of sticks bound by strips of leather.  It symbolically functioned like our national motto, "E pluribus unum."  ["From many, one"]  ...many sticks acting as one...  It would frequently have an axe head sticking out of it to really emphasize the power.  Lictors, super-special bodyguards (mentioned in the Livy reading), carry fasces as part of their uniform.  The word "fascism" comes from fasces.  Fasces are a favorite symbol in a lot of nationalistic imagery.



This is a 2-4-1.  Both a fasces and "E pluribus unum."

In National Treasure III, will Nicholas Cage discover that the U.S. is actually ruled by Italian fascists?



Here you can make out some fasces near the top of this image from the Ara Pacis [Alter of  Peace] from 9 BC.



Another way of viewing fasces is more insidious.

Anthony Marshall (a Classical historian) wrote, "the fasces were not merely decorative or symbolic devices carried before magistrates in a parade of idle formalism. Rather, they constituted a portable kit for flogging and decapitation. Since they were so brutally functional, they not only served as ceremonial symbols of office but also carried the potential of violent repression and execution."  [p. 130 in Marshall, Anthony J. "Symbols and Showmanship in Roman Public Life: The Fasces." Phoenix 38, no. 2 (1984): 120-141.]

Back to Syllabus [EuroHist-HHS123-F09]


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Excellent detailed photos of the Ara Pacis.

Special Presentations by .... Bobby Bishop on Ancient Food


Here is a link to the materials for this presentation. 


Here is an older copy of the Apicius cookbook with lots of recipes.  Be warned that the theory about what garum/liquimen is, has been revised significantly since this was originally published.  The edition edited by Grocock and Grainger includes the chapter that reflects the recent scholarship.

Apicius-Vehling-excerpts120dpi.pdf [9.3MB]

Exam Review Materials



EratosthenesCircum.htm- just look over the broad strokes.