HoST Fall 2010

Tues/Thurs. starting at 4:00 in Babio 203

Back to HoST Fall 2010 Syllabus

Email me: host@mifami.org


This is 2010, not 2011...

This is 2010, not 2011...

This is 2010, not 2011...

This is 2010, not 2011...

 

Week of 9/28 and 9/30

 

Assignment 4


Circles, Cycles, Maps, and Matter

:::::AV:Maps:Ancient- Roman:Agrippa's map; Peut's:Peutinger Map Talbot 2004 images:Original-Reconstruction-sm.jpg

Tabula Peutingeriana [detail]

Codex 324, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Hofburg, Vienna

 


 Updated: 8/31/11 4:20 PM


Have you acquired Bown's book, A Most Damnable Invention: Dynamite, Nitrates, and the Making of the Modern World?

Better get on it a.s.a.p.  [See Assignment 0 page for details.]


For Tuesday:

 

Read pp. 79-96 in McClellan and Dorn. 16pp

 

Read this excerpt (pp. 125-131) on Galen: Lindberg_OnGalenExcerpt-1.5MB.pdf. Galen was probably the most important medical practitioner and theorist in history.  His anatomy was influential from the 2nd century AD until the 16th century.  His influence and longevity closely parallel the influence and longevity of Ptolemy.  7pp

 

Play with this animation of Ptolemy's cosmos.  ptolemy-comsmo-animation.sitx  [This may or may not work for you.  If it doesn't, don't worry about it.]

 

Homework assignment that everyone must do for Tuesday. 

1) Look at this map.  PeutingerMap-detail [1.1MB]  It is a small section from what is called the  Peutinger's Map.  [Link to the entire map -7.6MB]  It is probably a map that originates from 1st-century Rome and shows the entire Roman Empire and then some.  [If you are interested, here is a bit more information on the history of this map: PeutingerMapLectureNotes.htm] 

 

2) Now find a modern map of the same area... you could use GoogleEarth or whatever you wish. 

 

3) Now, on both maps find the following:

i) Nile River Delta

ii) the lighthouse at Alexandria

iii) the city of Antioch [Antiochia]

iv) and Jerusalem [Herusalem].  (Jerusalem is hard to find but if you look for geographical landmarks you might succeed.) 

 

 

3) Now prove to me that you have found these places on the Peutinger Map.  You might cut and paste details into a document and then just tag them...

 

E.g.

Here is the city of Pergamo[n] [or is it Perganto?]

 

... or you could draw it and label it.  Whatever you find more convenient is fine.

 

4) Finally, write a couple of sentences with some observations you have made on how the Peutinger Map is organized/oriented/arranged.

 

 

For Thursday:

 

Read Book II in Lucretius' On the Nature of the Universe. 

 



Short or Long Essay assignment.

[Remember, you need to do two of these by midterm, 4 total.]

It's always good to draw upon previous assignments too.

 

Short Essay: Drawing on the readings and other activities from this week, write up a short essay.  Tell me something new.  Cite everything.

 

Long Essay: Same idea but also using an additional source from below.

 

Additional materials for Long Essay:

 

-A description of Ptolemy’s astro-harmonic system. Claudius Ptolemy is from the 2nd century AD and lived in Alexandria, Egypt.  He wrote in Greek, lived under Roman rule, and lived in Egypt.  Newsome-PtolemysOverwhelmingOeuvreWeb.pdf  [1.4MB]  You can skip the section in blue, but feel free to read it if you like.

 

-  Fleming, Donald. "Galen on the Motions of the Blood in the Heart and Lungs." Isis 46, no. 1 (1955): pp. 14-21. Fleming_GalenBloodmotioninheartlungs.pdf

 

- Bragg, Melvyn. Pliny's Natural History. Audio. London: BBC, 2010.  [45 minutes].  If you use this, and quote from it, be sure to identify the speaker (as best as you can) and identify where in the recording it can be found.  Here is the BBC site for this episode, with an overview and list of guests: link.

Here is the actual audio file: IOT_ Pliny's Natural History 8 Jul 10.mp3  [24 MB]

 

- Bragg, Melvyn. Archimedes. Audio. London: BBC, 2007.  [45 minutes].  If you use this, and quote from it, be sure to identify the speaker (as best as you can) and identify where in the recording it can be found.  Here is the BBC site for this episode, with an overview and list of guests: link.

Here is the actual audio file: IOT_ Archimedes.mp3 [16.8 MB]

 

- Bragg, Melvyn. Prime Numbers. Audio. London: BBC, 2009.  [45 minutes].  If you use this, and quote from it, be sure to identify the speaker (as best as you can) and identify where in the recording it can be found.  Here is the BBC site for this episode, with an overview and list of guests: link.

Here is the actual audio file: IOT_ Prime Numbers.mp3 [16.8MB]

 

- Bragg, Melvyn. The Four Humors. Audio. London: BBC, 2009.  [45 minutes].  If you use this, and quote from it, be sure to identify the speaker (as best as you can) and identify where in the recording it can be found.  Here is the BBC site for this episode, with an overview and list of guests: link.  This is one of my favorite episodes of all time. 

Here is the actual audio file: IOT_ Four Humours.mp3

 


Citations for the assigned readings:

 

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science : The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. To A.D. 1450. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

 

Lucretius Carus, Titus, R. E. Latham, and John Godwin. On the Nature of the Universe. Translated by R. E. Latham and with Introduction and Notes by John Godwin. Penguin Classics. New York: Penguin Books, 1994.

 

McClellan, James E., and Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History : An Introduction. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, Date depends on your copy.


 

Here are some interesting images from the Greco-Roman world.

IMG_0009BoxersmRome         Boxer-hodges13

The Boxer

Roman bronze copy from the 1st c. BC of a Greek sculpture from ca. 225 BC by Apollonius(?)

Roman National Museum, Rome.  (Capitoline Museum-Termi Museum)

Most Greek sculptures you see in museums are actually Roman copies of Greek sculptures.  The Roman stylistic deviations from the originals are the subject of much scholarly discussion.

 

BoxerDamageDetails

This detail shows cuts around his eyes and on his shoulder and his broken nose. Roman boxing was pretty brutal compared to the modern equivalent.  Look at the gloves he is using.  They would maximize damage, not minimize it.

 

BoxerGloves2

[This image of the “gloves” is from another sculpture ???]

 

As I was looking for better images of the Boxer, I came across this article in a journal on medical history:

 

(if you are interested...)

 “The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and
Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics
and Their Relation to Lipodermos,
Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration,
and the Kynodesme”

by FREDERICK M. HODGES

http://www.cirp.org/library/history/hodges2/

 


IMG_0024carpentryimagesdetailplanesaw

This is a wall painting from Pompeii from the 1st century AD.  Notice how the tools these carpenters are using are basically identical to tools that are still used by fine craftsmen today (as seen below).  It looks like the fellows using the saw are making planks.  They are certainly rip-sawing, which means sawing with the grain.  I own somewhere in the neighborhood of 50 planes, some that look very much like the one seen in this picture, and I own 2 saws of this design.  I used them frequently back when I made my living in wood. Nothing is nicer to the touch than a finely tuned and sharpened plane.  Especially nice are the ones with all-wood bodies.  For me, it is very interesting to see people from 2000 years ago using the same tools I do.

Reliefcroppedsm

 

This Roman relief is from the late 1st century AD. 

The saw and the compass are standard symbols of the carpentry.

There are two styles of frame saw visible in this as well as calipers (compass) and a square and a mallet and probably other tools if you bother to look closely.  (This relief has been damaged.  I very much doubt that the carpenters from the 1st c. were headless and/or leggless.  Although many carpenters from today are missing a finger or two.)

 

handplane_completed  FrameSaw Late17thc

Here is a modern wood-bodied plane.  It functions identically to the Roman one seen above. 

Also shown is a modern frame saw and another from the late 17th c. of a slightly different design.

 


 

IMG_0027LyreMusictuningdetail

This wall painting from Pompeii shows a woman tuning a lyre from some other stringed instrument which I do not recognize.  It is dated to ca. 35 AD. 


 

IMG_0026paintingartDetail

Also from Pompeii, this wall painting from ca. 60 AD, is of a woman painting a picture of a sculpture which is in the upper right-hand corner of this picture.  She has her painting tools in that box near her right hand and the painting she is working on is at her feet.  I personally find it a bit strange that she is working off the floor.  I usually have found an easel to be easier.  I also find it a bit strange to set the paint box on that cylinder.  Seems a bit precarious to me.


IMG_0073PtolemaicModelVaticansm

This is an model of the cosmos along Ptolemaic lines that I saw in the Vatican recently.  It didn’t have a label, so I can only guess that it is from the 15th or 16th century, but it could be later or perhaps earlier.  I think I see the equant or the eccentric demonstrated here.  If you can see the same thing, I suggest you write about it in your essay.


athenslargesmall

This is Raphael’s famous “School of Athens” from the early 16th century.  It is the entire wall of a room at the Vatican.  You can see a doorway in the lower left corner for scale.  Below is a detail with some labels added.  You will notice that we have recently discussed several of these fellows.  In fact, Pythagoras has a diagram at his feet about all that music theory we discussed last week. We will discuss Averroes, perhaps the most influential Islamic philosopher, in a few weeks.

 

RaphaelDetailAthensSchool

 

 



Interesting Sciencey-Techy News

 

This is for real, a zorse (zebra-horse) named Eclyse.

Could it be that some of us have some Neanderthal in us?

Chimeras are discussed by Lucretius in Book III.

 Carroll-Hybrids May Thrive Where Parents Fear to Tread-NYTimes

 

 

 

Not Just a Perch for King Kong-NYTimes-9/23/10

 


Back to HoST Fall 2010 Syllabus

 

Email me: host@mifami.org


Added 10/18/2010

Exam notes:

Look over the readings and your notes....

 

-Hellenic and Hellenistic

-Library/Museum of Alexandria

-Ptolemy's cosmos

-Archimedes

-Roman tech.

-Galen

-Peutinger's Map

-Lucretius Book II

-EratosthenesCircum.htm

-etc.

 

 

 


 

 

The following links are to notes on things I may lecture on. You may try to follow along with these notes if you like.  I may not follow them very closely myself.  EratosthenesCircum.htm