Plague, Money, and Sin
(not necessarily in that order)
Satan, Lucifer, the Devil, Beelzebob
By Giotto (1267-1337)
In the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, Italy
Can you guess who it is that he is eating... forever?
Latin trivia: in the same way that Christopher is Christo-fer or Christ Carrier [fer as in ferry boat]
Luci-fer means Light Carrier.
Read: Davies: Read pp. 383-401
Read the 12 Lollard Conclusions [linked below].
John Wyclif and the Lollards [from Kenyon College Site]
In the fourteenth century, John Wyclif, educated at Oxford and influenced by the nominalism of William of Ockham, gave "learned heresy" a common audience. Like the Waldensians, the Lollards [the followers of Wyclif] translated the Bible into their vernacular language, English. The Lollards were the most significant heretical group in England before the Reformation. Interestingly, Wyclif's teachings were influential for John Hus in Bohemia, the leader of another great medieval heretical group, the Hussites. Wyclif was condemned by popes Gregory XI and Urban VI on several occasions. Even after his death, Wyclif's heretical teachings were addressed at the Council of Constance in 1415.
Followers of Wyclif came to be known as "Lollards." Perhaps the name was derived from the Dutch term lollaerd, meaning mumbler. The sect was driven out of Oxford in 1382, but some devout members circulated Wyclif's teachings as well as the 1394 "Lollard Conclusions."
They are in many ways a precursor to Protestantism.
Read the 12 Lollard Conclusions from 1394: Lollard-12-Conclusions.pdf [You can figure out how to cite this.]
Read: Davies: Read pp. 401-417
Read this thing on the Ottoman Empire: OttomanHistoryNotes.htm
Read these accounts of the plague: Plague-docs-sm.pdf [1.1 MB] (Sorry I put these up late.)
Essay: Write about what you read for class. You know the drill and the variety of options.
This is very interesting stuff.
– Resource package for Jenna. Look at "Bibliography-Monsters.htm" first.
Renaissance_Economics - for Eric
– Usury, Capitalism, Banks, and Insurance. Money breeding money. Good or Bad?
Look at the file called "Renaissance-Economics-Bibliography.htm" first.
Plague-Resources-Bibliography.htm- for Melanie